The canonical correlation analysis (CCA) forecast of
SST in the central Pacific (Barnett et al. 1988, Science, 241,
192‑196; Barnston and Ropelewski
1992, J. Climate, 5, 1316‑1345), is shown in Figs. F1 and F2. This forecast is produced routinely by the
Prediction Branch of the Climate Prediction Center. The
predictions from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)
Coupled Forecast System Model (CFS03) are presented in Figs. F3 and
F4a, F4b. Predictions from the
Markov model (Xue, et al. 2000: J. Climate, 13,
849‑871) are shown in Figs. F5 and F6. Predictions from the latest version of the
LDEO model (Chen et al. 2000: Geophys. Res.
Let., 27, 2585‑2587) are shown in Figs. F7
and F8. Predictions using linear inverse modeling (Penland and Magorian 1993: J.
Climate, 6, 1067‑1076) are shown in Figs. F9 and F10. Predictions from the Scripps / Max Planck
Institute (MPI) hybrid coupled model (Barnett et al. 1993: J. Climate, 6,
1545‑1566) are shown in Fig. F11.
Predictions from the ENSO‑CLIPER statistical model (Knaff and Landsea 1997, Wea.
Forecasting, 12, 633‑652) are shown in Fig. F12. Niño 3.4 predictions are summarized in Fig.
F13, provided by the Forecasting and Prediction Research Group of the IRI.
The CPC and the contributors to the Forecast Forum caution
potential users of this predictive information that they can expect only modest
ENSO Alert System Status: La Niña Advisory
transition to ENSO-neutral is expected to occur by February 2017, with ENSO-neutral
then continuing through the first half of 2017.
La Niña continued during December, with
negative sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies continuing across the central
and eastern equatorial Pacific (Fig. T18). The weekly Niño index values fluctuated
during the last month, with the monthly averaged Niño-3 and Niño-3.4 values at -0.4°C
T2). The upper-ocean heat content anomaly was near zero when
averaged across the eastern Pacific, though near-to-below average subsurface
temperatures were evident closer to the surface (Fig. T17). Atmospheric convection remained suppressed
over the central tropical Pacific and enhanced over Indonesia (Fig. T25). The low-level easterly winds were slightly enhanced over the
western Pacific, and upper-level westerly anomalies were observed across the eastern
Pacific (Fig. T20 & Fig. T21). Overall, the ocean and atmosphere system
remained consistent with a weak La Niña.
The multi-model averages favor an imminent
transition to ENSO-neutral (3-month average Niño-3.4 index between -0.5°C and 0.5°C),
with ENSO-neutral lasting through August-October (ASO) 2017 (Figs. F1-F13). Along
with the model forecasts, the decay of the subsurface temperature anomalies and
marginally cool conditions at and near the ocean surface portends the return of
ENSO-neutral over the next month. In summary, a transition to ENSO-neutral is expected to occur by February 2017, with
ENSO-neutral then continuing through the first half of 2017 (click CPC/IRI consensus forecast for the chance of each
outcome for each 3-month period).
updates of oceanic and atmospheric conditions are available on the Climate
Prediction Center homepage (El
Niño/La Niña Current Conditions and Expert Discussions).