The canonical correlation analysis (CCA) forecast of
SST in the central Pacific (Barnett et al. 1988, Science, 241,
192‑196; Barnston and Ropelewski
1992, J. Climate, 5, 1316‑1345), is shown in Figs. F1 and F2. This forecast is produced routinely by the
Prediction Branch of the Climate Prediction Center. The
predictions from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)
Coupled Forecast System Model (CFS03) are presented in Figs. F3 and
F4a, F4b. Predictions from the
Markov model (Xue, et al. 2000: J. Climate, 13,
849‑871) are shown in Figs. F5 and F6. Predictions from the latest version of the
LDEO model (Chen et al. 2000: Geophys. Res.
Let., 27, 2585‑2587) are shown in Figs. F7
and F8. Predictions using linear inverse modeling (Penland and Magorian 1993: J.
Climate, 6, 1067‑1076) are shown in Figs. F9 and F10. Predictions from the Scripps / Max Planck
Institute (MPI) hybrid coupled model (Barnett et al. 1993: J. Climate, 6,
1545‑1566) are shown in Fig. F11.
Predictions from the ENSO‑CLIPER statistical model (Knaff and Landsea 1997, Wea.
Forecasting, 12, 633‑652) are shown in Fig. F12. Niño 3.4 predictions are summarized in Fig.
F13, provided by the Forecasting and Prediction Research Group of the IRI.
The CPC and the contributors to the Forecast Forum caution
potential users of this predictive information that they can expect only modest
ENSO Alert System Status: La Niña Advisory
La Niña is likely (exceeding ~80%) through the Northern Hemisphere winter
2017-18, with a transition to ENSO-neutral most likely during the mid-to-late
La Niña strengthened during the past month,
as indicated by an increasingly prominent pattern of below-average sea surface
temperatures (SSTs) across the central and eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean (Fig. T18). The monthly
Niño-3.4 index value was -0.9°C, with the easternmost Niño-3 and
Niño-1+2 indices at or below -1.0°C (Table T2). Sub-surface
temperature anomalies weakened slightly during November, but remained
significantly negative due to the anomalously shallow depth of the thermocline
across the central and eastern Pacific (Fig. T17).
The atmospheric circulation over the tropical Pacific Ocean also
reflected La Niña, with convection suppressed
near the International Date Line and enhanced over Indonesia (Fig. T25). The
low-level trade winds were stronger than average over
the western and central Pacific, with anomalous westerly winds at upper-levels
(Fig. T20, Fig. T21). Overall, the
ocean and atmosphere system reflects La Niña.
Niña is predicted to persist through the Northern Hemisphere winter 2017-18 by
nearly all models in the IRI/CPC plume and in the North American Multi-Model
Ensemble (NMME; Figs. F1-F13). Based on the
latest observations and forecast guidance, forecasters favor the peak of a
weak-to-moderate La Niña during the winter (3-month Niño-3.4 values between 0.5°C
In summary, La Niña is likely
(exceeding ~80%) through the Northern Hemisphere winter 2017-18, with a transition
to ENSO-neutral most likely during the mid-to-late spring.
updates of oceanic and atmospheric conditions are available on the Climate
Prediction Center homepage (El
Niño/La Niña Current Conditions and Expert Discussions).