The canonical correlation analysis (CCA) forecast of
SST in the central Pacific (Barnett et al. 1988, Science, 241,
192‑196; Barnston and Ropelewski 1992, J. Climate, 5, 1316‑1345),
is shown in Figs. F1 and F2. This forecast is produced routinely by the
Prediction Branch of the Climate Prediction Center. The
predictions from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)
Coupled Forecast System Model (CFS03) are presented in Figs. F3 and
F4a, F4b. Predictions from the
Markov model (Xue, et al. 2000: J. Climate, 13, 849‑871)
are shown in Figs. F5 and F6.
Predictions from the latest version of the LDEO model (Chen et al. 2000:
Geophys. Res. Let., 27, 2585‑2587) are shown in Figs. F7
and F8. Predictions using linear
inverse modeling (Penland and Magorian 1993: J. Climate, 6, 1067‑1076)
are shown in Figs. F9 and F10. Predictions from the Scripps / Max Planck
Institute (MPI) hybrid coupled model (Barnett et al. 1993: J. Climate, 6,
1545‑1566) are shown in Fig. F11.
Predictions from the ENSO‑CLIPER statistical model (Knaff and
Landsea 1997, Wea. Forecasting, 12, 633‑652) are shown in Fig.
F12. Niño 3.4 predictions are
summarized in Fig. F13, provided by the Forecasting and Prediction
Research Group of the IRI.
The CPC and the contributors to the Forecast Forum caution
potential users of this predictive information that they can expect only modest
ENSO Alert System Status: La Niña
Niña conditions are present, with a transition to ENSO-neutral favored during
La Niña conditions persisted during November, with negative sea
surface temperature (SST) anomalies present across most of the central and
eastern equatorial Pacific (Fig. T18). The Niño indices remained negative in
November, except for the Niño1+2 index which reflected near-average SSTs in the
far eastern Pacific (Table T2). Also, the upper-ocean heat content remained
below average in association with cooler temperatures at depth (Fig. T17), although this cooling
lessened somewhat during the month. Atmospheric convection remained suppressed
over the central tropical Pacific and enhanced over part of Indonesia (Fig. T25). The low-level easterly winds remained enhanced in the
west-central tropical Pacific, and upper-level westerly winds persisted across
the tropical Pacific (Figs. T20 and T21). However, these signals were masked at times
by intra-seasonal activity (Fig. T12). Overall, the ocean and atmosphere system
during November reflected a continuation of weak La Niña conditions.
The multi-model averages favor La Niña (3-month average Niño-3.4
-0.5°C) to continue through December – February (DJF) 2016-17 (Figs. F1-F13). Given the current conditions and the model
forecasts, the forecaster consensus also favors the continuation of weak La
Niña conditions through DJF 2016-17. In
summary, La Niña conditions are present, with a transition to ENSO-neutral
favored during January – March 2017.
updates of oceanic and atmospheric conditions are available on the Climate
Prediction Center homepage (El
Niño/La Niña Current Conditions and Expert Discussions).