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About the Forecast Forum

ENSO Forecast Discussion

ENSO and SST Model Forecasts

Canonical Correlation Model
Nino 3.4 Region: Historical  F1
Nino 3.4 Region: 0-4 Season  F2

NCEP Coupled Model
Eq. Pac. SST & Anomalies  F3
Nino 3 & Nino 3.4 Region  F4

NCEP Markov Model
Eq. Pac. SST & Anomalies  F5
Nino 3.4 Region  F6

LDEO Model
Eq. Pac. SST & Wind Stress Anoms  F7
Nino 3 Region  F8

Linear Inverse Modeling
Global Tropical SST Anomalies  F9
Nino 3.4 Region: Historical  F10

Scripps/MPI Hybrid Coupled Model
Eq. Pac. SST & Anomalies  F11

All Nino Regions & SOI  F12

IRI Compilation of Forecasts
Nino3.4 Region  F13

Forecast Forum

JULY 2016


Forecast Forum

The canonical correlation analysis (CCA) forecast of SST in the central Pacific (Barnett et al. 1988, Science, 241, 192‑196; Barnston and Ropelewski 1992, J. Climate, 5, 1316‑1345), is shown in Figs. F1 and F2. This forecast is produced routinely by the Prediction Branch of the Climate Prediction Center. The predictions from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Coupled Forecast System Model (CFS03) are presented in Figs. F3 and F4a, F4b.  Predictions from the Markov model (Xue, et al. 2000: J. Climate, 13, 849‑871) are shown in Figs. F5 and F6.   Predictions from the latest version of the LDEO model (Chen et al. 2000: Geophys. Res. Let., 27, 2585‑2587) are shown in Figs. F7 and F8.  Predictions using linear inverse modeling (Penland and Magorian 1993: J. Climate, 6, 1067‑1076) are shown in Figs. F9 and F10. Predictions from the Scripps / Max Planck Institute (MPI) hybrid coupled model (Barnett et al. 1993: J. Climate, 6, 1545‑1566) are shown in Fig. F11.  Predictions from the ENSO‑CLIPER statistical model (Knaff and Landsea 1997, Wea. Forecasting, 12, 633‑652) are shown in Fig. F12.  Niño 3.4 predictions are summarized in Fig. F13, provided by the Forecasting and Prediction Research Group of the IRI.

The CPC and the contributors to the Forecast Forum caution potential users of this predictive information that they can expect only modest skill.


ENSO Alert System Status:  La Niña Watch




La Niña is slightly favored to develop during August - October 2016, with about a 55-60% chance of La Niña during the fall and winter 2016-17.




            ENSO-neutral conditions were observed during the past month, featuring slightly below average sea surface temperatures (SSTs) close to the equator across the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean (Fig. T18). While the weekly Niño-1+2 and Niño-4 regions were near average, the Niño-3 and Niño-3.4 indices were slightly below average (near -0.5oC) during July (Table T2). Although below-average subsurface temperatures continued, they weakened during the past month, but remained near the surface in parts of the central and eastern equatorial Pacific (Fig. T17). Atmospheric anomalies over the tropical Pacific Ocean also indicated ENSO-neutral conditions. Both the traditional Southern Oscillation index and the equatorial Southern Oscillation index were near average during July (Table T1 & Fig. T2), while the upper and lower-level winds also were near average across most of the tropical Pacific (Figs.T20, T21). Convection was suppressed over portions of the western and central tropical Pacific and enhanced over part of Indonesia (Fig. T25). Overall, the combined ocean and atmosphere system is reflective of ENSO-neutral.

Many models favor La Niña (3-month average Niño-3.4 index less than or equal to -0.5°C) by the beginning of the Northern Hemisphere fall, continuing into winter (Figs. F1-F13).  Statistical models predict a slightly later onset time (i.e., mid- to late fall) than dynamical models, and also predict a slightly weaker event. The forecaster consensus favors La Niña onset during the August-October season, and predicts a weak event (Niño-3.4 index between -0.5°C and -1.0°C) if  La Niña forms. Overall, La Niña is slightly favored to develop during August - October 2016, with about a 55-60% chance of La Niña during the fall and winter 2016-17.

Weekly updates of oceanic and atmospheric conditions are available on the Climate Prediction Center homepage (El Niño/La Niña Current Conditions and Expert Discussions).      




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