The canonical correlation analysis (CCA) forecast of
SST in the central Pacific (Barnett et al. 1988, Science, 241,
192‑196; Barnston and Ropelewski
1992, J. Climate, 5, 1316‑1345), is shown in Figs. F1 and F2. This forecast is produced routinely by the
Prediction Branch of the Climate Prediction Center. The
predictions from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)
Coupled Forecast System Model (CFS03) are presented in Figs. F3 and
F4a, F4b. Predictions from the
Markov model (Xue, et al. 2000: J. Climate, 13,
849‑871) are shown in Figs. F5 and F6. Predictions from the latest version of the
LDEO model (Chen et al. 2000: Geophys. Res.
Let., 27, 2585‑2587) are shown in Figs. F7
and F8. Predictions using linear inverse modeling (Penland and Magorian 1993: J.
Climate, 6, 1067‑1076) are shown in Figs. F9 and F10. Predictions from the Scripps / Max Planck
Institute (MPI) hybrid coupled model (Barnett et al. 1993: J. Climate, 6,
1545‑1566) are shown in Fig. F11.
Predictions from the ENSO‑CLIPER statistical model (Knaff and Landsea 1997, Wea.
Forecasting, 12, 633‑652) are shown in Fig. F12. Niño 3.4 predictions are summarized in Fig.
F13, provided by the Forecasting and Prediction Research Group of the IRI.
The CPC and the contributors to the Forecast Forum caution
potential users of this predictive information that they can expect only modest
ENSO Alert System Status: El Niño Watch
The chance of El Niño has decreased to about 65% during the Northern Hemisphere fall and early winter.
During July 2014, above-average sea surface temperatures (SST) continued
in the far eastern equatorial Pacific, but near average SSTs prevailed in the
central and east-central equatorial Pacific (Fig. T18). Most of the
Niño indices decreased with values of +0.3°C in Niño-4, +0.2°C in Niño-3.4, +0.7°C
in Niño-3, and +1.4°C in Niño-1+2 (Table T2). Subsurface heat content anomalies (averaged
between 180º-100ºW) continued to decrease
and are slightly below average. The above-average
subsurface temperatures that were observed near the surface during June (down
to 100m depth) are now limited to a thin layer in the top 50m, underlain by
mainly below-average temperatures (Fig. T17). The low-level winds over the tropical Pacific
remained near average during July, but westerly wind anomalies appeared in the
central and eastern part of the basin toward the end of the month (Fig. T20). Upper-level winds remained generally near average
and convection was enhanced mainly just north of the equator in the western
Pacific (Fig. T21). The lack of a coherent atmospheric El Niño
pattern, and a return to near-average SSTs in the central Pacific, indicate
Over the last month, model
forecasts have slightly delayed the El Niño onset, with most models now
indicating the onset during July-September, with the event continuing into
early 2015 (Figs. F1-F13). A strong El
Niño is not favored in any of the ensemble averages, and slightly more models
call for a weak event rather than a moderate event. At this time, the consensus of forecasters
expects El Niño to emerge during August-October and to peak at weak strength
during the late fall and early winter (3-month values of the Niño-3.4 index between
0.5°C and 0.9°C). The chance of El Niño
has decreased to about 65% during the Northern Hemisphere fall and early
Weekly updates of oceanic
and atmospheric conditions are available on the Climate Prediction Center
Niño/La Niña Current Conditions and Expert Discussions).