The canonical correlation analysis (CCA) forecast of
SST in the central Pacific (Barnett et al. 1988, Science, 241,
192‑196; Barnston and Ropelewski
1992, J. Climate, 5, 1316‑1345), is shown in Figs. F1 and F2. This forecast is produced routinely by the
Prediction Branch of the Climate
The predictions from the National Centers for
Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Coupled Forecast System Model (CFS03) are
presented in Figs. F3 and F4a, F4b.
Predictions from the Markov model (Xue, et al.
2000: J. Climate, 13, 849‑871) are shown in Figs. F5 and F6.
Predictions from the latest version of the LDEO model (Chen et al. 2000:
Geophys. Res. Let., 27, 2585‑2587)
are shown in Figs. F7 and F8. Predictions using linear inverse modeling (Penland and Magorian 1993: J.
Climate, 6, 1067‑1076) are shown in Figs. F9 and F10. Predictions from the Scripps / Max Planck
Institute (MPI) hybrid coupled model (Barnett et al. 1993: J. Climate, 6,
1545‑1566) are shown in Fig. F11.
Predictions from the ENSO‑CLIPER statistical model (Knaff and Landsea 1997, Wea.
Forecasting, 12, 633‑652) are shown in Fig. F12. Niño 3.4 predictions are summarized in Fig.
F13, provided by the Forecasting and Prediction Research Group of the IRI.
The CPC and the contributors to the Forecast Forum caution
potential users of this predictive information that they can expect only modest
ENSO Alert System Status: El Niño Watch
Chances increase for El Niño beginning in
During June 2012,
ENSO-neutral continued as reflected in both the oceanic and atmospheric
anomalies. However, positive equatorial
Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies have grown, exceeding +0.5°C
across the eastern Pacific Ocean by the end of June (Fig. T18). SST anomalies increase moving from the
westernmost Niño 4 region to the Niño 1+2 region
adjacent to South America, which remained near +1.5°C during the month (Table
T2). The oceanic heat content anomalies (average
temperature in the upper 300m of the ocean) increased during June, as
above-average sub-surface temperatures became more entrenched in the equatorial Pacific (Fig. T17). This warming was consistent with a weakening of
the low-level trade winds across the east-central equatorial Pacific, along
with a weakening of the persistent pattern of enhanced convection near Papua
New Guinea (Figs.T20 and Fig.T25). The
observations are consistent with ENSO-neutral, but reflect a likely progression
towards El Niño.
There continues to be a
substantial disparity between the statistical and dynamical model SST forecasts
for the Niño-3.4 region (Figs. F1-F13). The dynamical models, including the NCEP
Climate Forecast System (CFS), largely favor the development of El Niño by
July-September 2012, while the majority of statistical models predict
ENSO-neutral through the rest of 2012.
The forecaster consensus largely favors the dynamical model outcome
because those models tend to exhibit greater skill emerging from the Northern
Hemisphere “spring barrier” (a period of relatively low confidence ENSO
forecasts) and also due to the strengthening of observed signals indicating an
evolution towards El Niño. Overall, the
forecaster consensus reflects increased chances for El Niño beginning in
updates of oceanic and atmospheric conditions are available on the Climate
Prediction Center homepage (El
Niño/La Niña Current Conditions and Expert Discussions).