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figure e7

FIGURE E7. Standardized monthly amplitudes of selcted Northern Hemisphere teleconnection patterns. The teleconnection patterns are calculated from a Rotated Principal Component Analysis (RPCA -10 Varimax spatial rotations) applied to monthly 700-hPa standardized height anomalies between January 1964 - July 1994. Ten patterns (or EOFs) are determined for each calendar month by using all of the monthly height anomaly fields for the three-month period centered on that month: [i.e., The July EOF patterns are calculated based on the June, July, and August standardized monthly anomalies]. The time series’ are calculated by first projecting the standardized monthly anomalies onto the 10 leading EOFs corresponding to that month, and then solving for the amplitudes of all ten patterns simultaneously using a Least-Squares approach. In this approach the combination of the 10 resulting amplitudes explains the maximum spatial structure of the observed height anomaly field during the month. The monthly amplitudes are then standardized for each calendar month independently. No value is plotted for months in which the pattern does not appear as one of the 10 leading EOFs.

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