The canonical correlation analysis (CCA) forecast of
SST in the central Pacific (Barnett et al. 1988, Science, 241,
192‑196; Barnston and Ropelewski
1992, J. Climate, 5, 1316‑1345), is shown in Figs. F1 and F2. This forecast is produced routinely by the
Prediction Branch of the Climate Prediction Center. The
predictions from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)
Coupled Forecast System Model (CFS03) are presented in Figs. F3 and
F4a, F4b. Predictions from the
Markov model (Xue, et al. 2000: J. Climate, 13,
849‑871) are shown in Figs. F5 and F6. Predictions from the latest version of the
LDEO model (Chen et al. 2000: Geophys. Res.
Let., 27, 2585‑2587) are shown in Figs. F7
and F8. Predictions using linear inverse modeling (Penland and Magorian 1993: J.
Climate, 6, 1067‑1076) are shown in Figs. F9 and F10. Predictions from the Scripps / Max Planck
Institute (MPI) hybrid coupled model (Barnett et al. 1993: J. Climate, 6,
1545‑1566) are shown in Fig. F11.
Predictions from the ENSO‑CLIPER statistical model (Knaff and Landsea 1997, Wea.
Forecasting, 12, 633‑652) are shown in Fig. F12. Niño 3.4 predictions are summarized in Fig.
F13, provided by the Forecasting and Prediction Research Group of the IRI.
The CPC and the contributors to the Forecast Forum caution
potential users of this predictive information that they can expect only modest
ENSO Alert System Status: La Niña Advisory
transition from La Niña to ENSO-neutral is most likely during the Northern Hemisphere
spring (~55% chance of ENSO-neutral during the March-May season).
During January 2018, La Niña was evident in the pattern
of below-average sea surface temperatures (SSTs) across the central and eastern
equatorial Pacific Ocean (Fig. T18).
The monthly index values were close to -1.0°C in the
Niño-1+2, Niño-3, and Niño-3.4 regions, while the western-most Niño-4 region
was -0.3°C (Table T2). While negative anomalies were maintained
near the surface, the sub-surface temperatures in the eastern Pacific Ocean
returned to near average during the last month.
This was due to the eastward propagation of above-average temperatures
in association with a downwelling equatorial oceanic
Kelvin wave, which undercut the below-average temperatures near the surface (Fig. T17). The atmospheric conditions
over the tropical Pacific Ocean also reflected La Niña, with suppressed
convection near and east of the International Date Line and enhanced convection
around Indonesia (Fig. T25).
Also, the low-level trade winds remained stronger than average over the
western and central Pacific, while upper-level winds were anomalously westerly
(Figs. T20 & T21). Overall, the ocean and atmosphere system
remained consistent with La Niña.
models in the IRI/CPC plume predict La Niña will decay and return to ENSO-Neutral
during the Northern Hemisphere spring 2018 (Figs. F1-F13). The forecast consensus also favors a
transition during the spring with a continuation of ENSO-neutral conditions
thereafter. In summary, a transition from La Niña to ENSO-neutral is
most likely during the Northern Hemisphere spring (~55% chance of ENSO-neutral
during the March-May season).
updates of oceanic and atmospheric conditions are available on the Climate
Prediction Center homepage (El
Niño/La Niña Current Conditions and Expert Discussions).